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They have the advantage that their construction prevents the penetration of dirt and water to a greater extent and it also protects them from loss of lubricant.In addition, they have one further very important advantage as the ends of a broken outer wire cannot leave the rope if it has the proper dimensions.The second type, wire strand core, is made up of one additional strand of wire, and is typically used for suspension.The third type is independent wire rope core (IWRC), which is the most durable in all types of environments.Natural fibers can absorb up to 15% of their weight in lubricant and so protect the inner wires much better from corrosion than synthetic fibers do.Fiber cores are the most flexible and elastic, but have the downside of getting crushed easily.In stricter senses the term "wire rope" refers to diameter larger than 3/8 inch (9.52 mm), with smaller gauges designated cable or cords.
These wires are neighbours along the whole length of the strand. The endurance of wire ropes with this kind of strand is always much greater than of those (seldom used) with cross lay strands.
The decades were witness to a burgeoning increase in deep shaft mining in both Europe and North America as surface mineral deposits were exhausted and miners had to chase layers along inclined layers.
The era was early in railroad development and steam engines lacked sufficient tractive effort to climb steep slopes, so incline plane railways were common This pushed development of cable hoists rapidly in the United States as surface deposits in the Anthracite Coal Region north and south dove deeper every year, and even the rich deposits in the Panther Creek Valley required LC&N Co.
While friction between the individual wires and strands causes wear over the life of the rope, it also helps to compensate for minor failures in the short run.
Wire ropes were developed starting with mining hoist applications in the 1830s.